Free Radical

Free radical reactions
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Their reactive nature allows them to engage in unnecessary side reactions causing cellular impairment and eventually injury when they are present in disproportionate amounts. They directly impair cell membranes and DNA. This leads to cell mutation and causes new cells to grow erroneously, which means free radicals are associated with both development of cancer as well as the progression of aging. Free radicals are frequently implicated with health problems that are experienced with age, such as hardened arteries, diabetes and even wrinkle formation.

Overeating further increases free radical production.

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As we eat more, our mitochondria release more activated oxygen than normal during energy consumption, thus generating higher levels of free radicals. And, risk of oxidative stress is greater when certain types of foods are consumed and the degree of danger can be influenced by the way in which they are prepared or cooked.

You can avoid sources of free radicals on your holiday menu by planning ahead and incorporating healthy foods. Keep in mind that free radical content is high in nutrient-poor meals and those deficient of antioxidants. Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute.

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Radical (chemistry)

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Symptoms of oxidative stress

In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward the field of free radical chemistry. Free radicals reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen. Oxygen in the body splits into single atoms with unpaired electrons. The body's ability to turn air and food into chemical energy depends on a chain reaction of free radicals. Oxidative stress occurs when there are too many free radicals and too much cellular damage.

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There is also a large body evidence indicating that oxygen radicals are involved in intercellular and intracellular signalling. For example, addition of superoxide or hydrogen peroxide to a variety of cultured cells leads to an increased rate of DNA replication and cell proliferation - in other words, these radicals function as mitogens. Despite their beneficial activities, reactive oxygen species clearly can be toxic to cells. By definition, radicals possess an unpaired electron, which makes them highly reactive and thereby able to damage all macromolecules, including lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.

One of the best known toxic effects of oxygen radicals is damage to cellular membranes plasma, mitochondrial and endomembrane systems , which is initiated by a process known as lipid peroxidation.

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A common target for peroxidation is unsaturated fatty acids present in membrane phospholipids. A peroxidation reaction involving a fatty acid is depicted in the figure below. Reactions involving radicals occur in chain reactions. Note in the figure above that a hydrogen is abstracted from the fatty acid by hydroxyl radical, leaving a carbon-centered radical as part of the fatty acid. That radical then reacts with oxygen to yield the peroxy radical, which can then react with other fatty acids or proteins.

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In addition to effects on phospholipids, radicals can also directly attack membrane proteins and induce lipid-lipid, lipid-protein and protein-protein crosslinking, all of which obviously have effects on membrane function. Life on Earth evolved in the presence of oxygen, and necessarily adapted by evolution of a large battery of antioxidant systems.

Some of these antioxidant molecules are present in all lifeforms examined, from bacteria to mammals, indicating their appearance early in the history of life. Many antioxidants work by transiently becoming radicals themselves. These molecules are usually part of a larger network of cooperating antioxidants that end up regenerating the original antioxidant.

For example, vitamin E becomes a radical, but is regenerated through the activity of the antioxidants vitamin C and glutathione. Enzymatic Antioxidants. In addition to these enzymes, glutathione transferase, ceruloplasmin, hemoxygenase and possibly several other enzymes may participate in enzymatic control of oxygen radicals and their products.